OPIOID TOXICITY AND ITS PREVENTION
Mahendra Verma*, Trilochan Satapathy, Ritika Singh, Jhakeshwar Prasad, Lukeshwari Sahu, Rajendra Kumar and Akhilesh Kumar Sahu
Opioids are the substances which reduce the intensity of pain without losing consciousness. The word opioid comes from “opium” plus “oid”. Opioid drugs act in different ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. There are different sources of opioid drugs, some synthetic drugs such as Fentanyl, tramadol, pethidine, and dextromethorphan etc. Natural alkaloids which obtained from plant constituents including morphine, codeine, thebaine, and endogenous opioid like nociceptin, endorphins, enkephalins, dinorphine. Which is responsible for subside pain when binding with their respective receptor-like Mu (μ), Delta (δ), Kappa (Κ) etc. Opioid toxicity occurs after taking too much of opioids, Sometimes opioid toxicity occurs when other sedatives and hypnotics are concomitantly used along with some opioid derivatives. Some antagonist like Naloxone, Naltrexone, Nalmefene and Butorphanol competitively bind to opioid receptor and is choice for the acute toxicity. In this review, our efforts have been devoted to summarize and explore the reasons for opioid toxicity, their prevention, awareness, and treatment for the benefit of society.
Keywords: Opioid; Naloxone receptor; Toxicity; Treatment.
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