EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57

Abstract

OPIOID TOXICITY AND ITS PREVENTION

Mahendra Verma*, Trilochan Satapathy, Ritika Singh, Jhakeshwar Prasad, Lukeshwari Sahu, Rajendra Kumar and Akhilesh Kumar Sahu

ABSTRACT

Opioids are the substances which reduce the intensity of pain without losing consciousness. The word opioid comes from “opium” plus “oid”. Opioid drugs act in different ways on the peripheral and central nervous systems. There are different sources of opioid drugs, some synthetic drugs such as Fentanyl, tramadol, pethidine, and dextromethorphan etc. Natural alkaloids which obtained from plant constituents including morphine, codeine, thebaine, and endogenous opioid like nociceptin, endorphins, enkephalins, dinorphine. Which is responsible for subside pain when binding with their respective receptor-like Mu (μ), Delta (δ), Kappa (Κ) etc. Opioid toxicity occurs after taking too much of opioids, Sometimes opioid toxicity occurs when other sedatives and hypnotics are concomitantly used along with some opioid derivatives. Some antagonist like Naloxone, Naltrexone, Nalmefene and Butorphanol competitively bind to opioid receptor and is choice for the acute toxicity. In this review, our efforts have been devoted to summarize and explore the reasons for opioid toxicity, their prevention, awareness, and treatment for the benefit of society.

Keywords: Opioid; Naloxone receptor; Toxicity; Treatment.


[Full Text Article]

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  • New Issue Published

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )