PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS METHANOL FRUIT EXTRACT OF SARCOCEPHALUS LATIFOLIUS (SMITH) BRUCE (RUBIACEAE)
Hananiya Hamza Milagawanda*, Yesufu Braimah Hassan and Wazis Chama Haruna
Diabetes mellitus is associated with complications and the present treatment is expensive and not readily available. It is also associated with unwanted side effects. WHO recommend the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of several ailments. Sarcocephalus latifolius happens to be one of such plants which have been reported to possess anti-malarial and anti-bacteria effect. However, the use of this plant in the management of diabetics mellitus has not yet been established. Therefore, this study was embarked upon in order to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the aqueous fruit extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius. S. latifolius fruit was subjected to standard techniques for extraction, screening for phyto-constituents, acute toxicity testing and anti-diabetic evaluation. The extract tested positive for alkaloid, carbohydrate, glycoside, saponin and terpenoid. The extract was found to possess hypoglycaemic effect that was not dose dependent. At 48 hours of extract administration, the extract was found to reduce hyperglycaemia significantly than insulin (p<0.05) used as the control drug. The fruit extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius contains bioactive phytochemical compounds which may be responsible for the observed hypoglycaemic effect and thus amply justifies the traditional use of this plant.
Keywords: Sarcocephalus Latifolius, Phyto-Constituents, Acute Toxicity, Alloxan, Hypoglycaemia.
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