DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN PHARMACOGENOMICS AND PHARMACOGENETICS: HOW THEY GUIDE THE CHOICE OF DRUG THERAPY
*Ohadoma S. C., Lawal B. A. S, Odoala F. K. and Eban L. K.
Pharmacogenomics describes or explains the use of genetic information to guide the choice of drug therapy on an individual basis, utilizing the assumption that differences between individuals in their response to therapeutic drugs can be predicted from their genetic makeup. It is also defined as the study of the role of the genome in drug response. It is a combination of Pharmacology and Genomics. Pharmacogenomics analyzes how the genetic makeup of an individual affects his/her response to drugs (Ermak, 2015). It deals with the influence of acquired and inherited genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with Pharmacokinetics (drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination)and Pharmacodynamics (effects mediated through a drug's biological targets) (Johnson, 2003). Pharmacogenomics aims to develop rational means to optimize drug therapy, with respect to the patients' genotype, to ensure maximum efficacy with minimal adverse effects (Becquemont, 2009). Through the utilization of Pharmacogenomics, it is hoped that Pharmaceutical drug treatments can deviate from the widely known "one-dose-fits-all" approach. Pharmacogenetics on the other hand involves the study of single gene mutations and their effect on drug response. Polymorphic variation in the genes that encode the functions of transporters, metabolizing enzymes, receptors and other proteins can result in individual differences in the dose â€“ plasma concentration response relationships for many important therapeutic agents (Tesema et al., 2016).
Keywords: Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacogenetics, drug therapy, choice guide, Ethical consideration.
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