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An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Obodo Basil Nnaemeka*, Iyevhobu Kenneth O., Ighodaro Faith I., Omolumen L. E., Abinokhauno Solomon, Ugwu M. C.


This study was designed to evaluate the serum levels of creatinine, urea and activities of Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), Creatine kinase (CK) and Lactate dehydydrogenase (LDH) among cigarette smokers in Ekpoma, Edo State. This study employed a total of 80 subjects consisting of 50 cigarette smokers and 30 non cigarette smokers which served as the control. All laboratory analysis was carried out using Randox kit assay system. Creatinine values among cigarette smokers (0.81 ± 0.11mg/dl) were significantly higher (P<0.05) when compared with the control (0.73 ± 0.10 mg/dl). Similarly, serum urea levels among cigarette smokers (20.60 ± 1.58mg/dl) were also found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) than the control (17.82 ± 0.49 mg/dl). Comparatively, activities of both ALP (23.80 ± 2.70U/L) and GGT (32.43 ± 2.46U/L) in cigarette smokers were significantly higher (P<0.05) when compared with their respective controls (19.54 ± 1.30 U/L and 23.50 ± 1.60U/L). It was also observed in this study that the levels of these parameters were significantly higher as age increases. Also, activities of CK was significantly higher (p<0.05) among cigarette smokers (173.03±47.31 U/L) when compared with the control (149.10±59.98 U/L). The activities of LDH were significantly higher among cigarette smokers (337.55 ± 119.11 U/L) when compared with the control (302.62 ± 93.80 U/L). Similarly there was a significant alteration when ALP, GGT, CK, LDH, creatinine, Urea were compared with exposure to cigarette smoking. Therefore, this study showed that the serum biochemical parameters investigated were significantly affected by smoking.

Keywords: Smokers, Cigarette, Biochemical, Creatinine, Urea.

[Full Text Article]



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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )