MMP-2, MMP-9, AND VEGF LEVELS IN PATIENTS WITH RENAL CELL CARCINOMA: ROLE AS POTENTIAL BIOMARKERS FOR EARLY PROGNOSTICATION OF DISEASE
Shamim Ahmad*, Vishwajeet Singh, Rahul Janak Sinha, Aneesh Srivastava, Anil Mandhani and Priyank Yadav
Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the levels of Matrix Metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), Matrix Metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), and Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) prospectively, in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and assess their impact on patient survival, to establish them as biomarkers for prognosticating disease. Material and Method: 100 patients with RCC who were planned for surgery included in this study. Their venous blood sample was collected before and after the surgery to analyze the level variation of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) technique. All patients were followed up at every three months for up to 5 years. Blood samples of healthy kidney donors were taken to serve as the control for the study. The survival analysis was done with Kaplan–Meier survival curves. Results: Preoperative MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF levels were higher compared to the postoperative levels in patients with RCC (p=0.001).On further analysis, higher marker levels, high-grade tumor, advance stage tumor and tumor size >7 cm were associated with low overall survival and progression-free survival (p=0.001). Conclusion: Level variation of MMP-2, MMP-9, and VEGF correlate with survival of patients with RCC in different conditions. They may serve as a useful biomarker for prognosticating patients with RCC in the early stage for achieving better survival.
Keywords: RCC, MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF, OS, PFS.
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