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An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Anjum A., Ahmed S., Waris A.*, Sukul R.R., Ahmed A. and Siddiqui S.S.


Aim: Sex steroid hormones are essential for reproductive function, but can also affect the physiology of a non-reproductive system, such as that of eye, and are probably the cause of the large majority of known sex differences in function and disease. The aim of this study is to measure the levels of serum testosterone and to study the relationship with diabetic retinopathy. Subjects and Methods: To meet the aim a hospital-based, cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 eyes of 60 diabetic patients, who were referred from the Rajiv Gandhi Center for Diabetes and Endocrinology to the Retina Clinic, Institute of Ophthalmology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. Serum testosterone, blood sugar fasting, blood sugar post-prandial, glycated hemoglobin was measured in subjects with diabetic retinopathy and subjects without diabetic retinopathy. In addition, correlation of serum testosterone with age, duration of disease, blood pressure, glycemic profile and sex steroid hormonal status of subjects with diabetic retinopathy Results: The mean serum testosterone level was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in subjects with diabetic retinopathy (DR) as compared to subjects without diabetic retinopathy (DR). A significant positive correlation of serum testosterone was found with blood sugar fasting (BSF) (p<0.01), HBA1c (p<0.05), serum progesterone (p<0.01) whereas a significant negative correlation was found with serum estrogen (p<0.01), serum LH (p<0.01) and serum FSH (p<0.01). However when the various stages of diabetic retinopathy was compared with serum testosterone, it was found maximum in the severe NPDR category, whereas minimum in moderate NPDR category, with a non-significant result (p >0.05). Conclusion: A possible susceptibility and association of high levels of serum testosterone with diabetic retinopathy encourages further studies needed for justification of the quantum of influence of serum testosterone and other sex hormones have, in relation to gender with regard to progression of diabetic retinopathy as well as diabetic duration and blood glucose control to understand the mechanism of progression of diabetic retinopathy.

Keywords: Sex steroid hormone, testosterone, diabetic retinopathy, blood sugar fasting, blood sugar post-prandial, glycated hemoglobin.

[Full Text Article]



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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )