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An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

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European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Navneet Kaur Bhatia*, Rajiv Ahluwalia, Stutee Bali Grewal and Dakshina Bisht


The oral environment provides an ideal environment for the colonization of a complex microbiota. When changes occur in the normal oral environment, the balanced flora changes, and imbalance and disease may result. Such changes could be brought about by the introduction of orthodontic appliances. 80 patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment were selected following inclusion and exclusion criteria and divided into two equal groups. Study group (SG) of 40 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were educated by a video of how to maintain proper oral hygiene by using modified bass brushing technique and were instructed to follow the same. Control group (CG) comprising of 40 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were asked to maintain oral hygiene on its own. Oral examination of the orthodontic patients was performed and modified plaque index was calculated at the start of the treatment, as well as at an interval of 3 months till one year. Two swabs of plaque samples from buccal/ labial and palatal/lingual tooth surfaces were collected by rubbing the tooth surfaces. First swab was cultured on Blood Agar and Mitis Salivarius Bacitracin Agar to determine counts of Streptococcus mutans, and second was cultured on Sabaraud‟s Dextrose Agar to determine the counts of Candida albicans. 62.5% patients reported with Streptococcus mutans in both the groups at the end of 1st month. At the end of 4th month and 8th month, 62.5% patients in SG and 65% in CG reported with Streptococcus mutans. At the end of 12th month, 65% SG reported Streptococcus mutans as compared to 70% in CG. At the end of 1st month, 57.5% patients in SG reported with Candida albicans as compared to 67.5% patients in CG. At the end of 4th month, 62.5% patients of SG and 72.5% in CG reported with Candida albicans. At the end of 12th month, 72.5% SG patients and 82.5% in CG reported with Candida albicans. The difference was statistically significant. As Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are pathogenic microbes leading to dental caries and various other oral diseases, good oral hygiene can play an important role in orthodontic treatment and preventing further dental problems. Modified bass brushing technique is an important tool in maintaining good oral hygiene.

Keywords: Fixed Orthodontic appliances, Modified bass brushing, Habitual brushing, Oral microbes, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans.

[Full Text Article]



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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database