GROWTH AND RESISTANCE PHENOTYPES OF KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE PRE–TREATED WITH HERBAL DRUGS
Monsi Tombari Pius*, Abbey Samuel Douglas, Wachukwu Confidence Kinikanwo and Wokem Ngozika Gloria
Background: Bacteria develop resistance to antimicrobial agents through prior sensitization to antibiotics or compounds possessing some antimicrobial properties. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the growth phenotypes and resistance profile of Klebsiella pneumoniae pretreated with herbal drugs. Methods: The efficacies of the herbal drugs Ruzu bitters, Goko alcoholic bitters, Goko bitters, New hope herbal mixture, Danko solution, Beta cleanser, Golden seed and Evacuation solution to K. pneumoniae were carried out using well–diffusion method. The growth patterns of K. pneumoniae in the herbal drugs were studied in Tryptone Soy Broth (TSB) for 24 hrs. To determine the concentration of serum to use in the serum resistance study, different concentrations of normal human serum (NHS) was used ranging from 10–90% of normal human serum on the clinical and laboratory strains of K. pneumoniae. Forty percent (40%) of normal serum and heat–inactivated serum concentration was exposed to K. pneumoniae exposed to the different herbal drugs. Results: The zones of inhibition observed in Ruz, Gab, Gob and Bet are moderately sensitive while New, Dan, Gol and Eva are classified as resistant. All the herbal drugs showed significantly lowered (P < 0.05) zone of clearance compared to the control antibiotic, Imipenem. The continuous growth curve showed the bacteria showed peak growth after 24 hrs which was adopted in the exposure studies. There was an exponential decrease in the number of bacteria at 40% serum concentration before levelling off. The clinical strain in Bet, Gab and Gob did not show significant variation in the zone of inhibition compared to the control (P > 0.05). Conclusion: To sum up, some of the herbal drugs possess some levels of efficacies against K. pneumoniae but prior exposure to herbal drugs sensitizes the bacteria to become resistance when exposed to antibiotics (Meropenem, Imipenem and Gentamicin) as well as serum.
Keywords: Klebsiella pneumonia, Meropenem, Imipenem and Gentamicin.
[Full Text Article]