( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , Academia , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 7.065

 ICV - 79.57



Monsi Tombari Pius*, Abbey Samuel Douglas, Wachukwu Confidence Kinikanwo and Wokem Ngozika Gloria


Background: Bacteria develop resistance to antimicrobial agents through prior sensitization to antibiotics or compounds possessing some antimicrobial properties. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the growth phenotypes and resistance profile of Klebsiella pneumoniae pretreated with herbal drugs. Methods: The efficacies of the herbal drugs Ruzu bitters, Goko alcoholic bitters, Goko bitters, New hope herbal mixture, Danko solution, Beta cleanser, Golden seed and Evacuation solution to K. pneumoniae were carried out using well–diffusion method. The growth patterns of K. pneumoniae in the herbal drugs were studied in Tryptone Soy Broth (TSB) for 24 hrs. To determine the concentration of serum to use in the serum resistance study, different concentrations of normal human serum (NHS) was used ranging from 10–90% of normal human serum on the clinical and laboratory strains of K. pneumoniae. Forty percent (40%) of normal serum and heat–inactivated serum concentration was exposed to K. pneumoniae exposed to the different herbal drugs. Results: The zones of inhibition observed in Ruz, Gab, Gob and Bet are moderately sensitive while New, Dan, Gol and Eva are classified as resistant. All the herbal drugs showed significantly lowered (P < 0.05) zone of clearance compared to the control antibiotic, Imipenem. The continuous growth curve showed the bacteria showed peak growth after 24 hrs which was adopted in the exposure studies. There was an exponential decrease in the number of bacteria at 40% serum concentration before levelling off. The clinical strain in Bet, Gab and Gob did not show significant variation in the zone of inhibition compared to the control (P > 0.05). Conclusion: To sum up, some of the herbal drugs possess some levels of efficacies against K. pneumoniae but prior exposure to herbal drugs sensitizes the bacteria to become resistance when exposed to antibiotics (Meropenem, Imipenem and Gentamicin) as well as serum.

Keywords: Klebsiella pneumonia, Meropenem, Imipenem and Gentamicin.

[Full Text Article] [Download Certificate]


  All Since 2019
 Citation  3086  2560
 h-index  18  17
 i10-index  64  44



  • New Issue Published

    Its Our pleasure to inform you that, EJPMR 1 June 2024 Issue has been Published, Kindly check it on


    JUNE 2024 issue has been successfully launched on JUNE 2024.

  • EJPMR New Impact Factor

    EJPMR Impact Factor has been Increased to 7.065 for Year 2024.

  • Index Copernicus Value

    EJPMR Received Index Copernicus Value 79.57, due to High Quality Publication in EJPMR at International Level

  • Journal web site support Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Saffari for easy download of article without any trouble.


  • Article Invited for Publication

    Article are invited for publication in EJPMR Coming Issue

Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database Academia