CHRONOLOGICAL, BONE AGE, MATURITY, CORTICAL INDEX AND CORTICAL VOLUME INDEX IN RELATION TO THE FLUORIDE CONTENT IN WATER IN A RURAL COMMUNITY IN KENYA
*Gladys N. Opinya, BDS (Nbi), CAGS, MSc.D (Boston USA); PhD (Nbi)
Growth in children and adolescents is closely related to bone thickness, length and bone maturity as represented by
an increase of minerals in the cortical bone and a general reduction in the medulla width. The study aim was to
determine the bone age, cortical index, and cortical volume index and relate to the chronological age and the
fluoride content in the drinking water. The sample size was determined using the Fisher et al. formula. The mean
fluoride concentration in the surface and groundwater was 0.65mg /l and 9.9 mg/l respectively. The 107 children
and adolescents selected for the study were born and raised in the study community. The boys and girls aged 6-10
years were 60 (56.1%), while the adolescent boys and girls were 47 (43.9%). The mean chronological age for the
whole group was 10.1±3.6 years; mean bone age, bone maturity 1.05±1.04years; cortical index, 0.38±0.09; and the
cortical bone volume was 0.065±0.015. The chronological and bone age, cortical index and cortical volume index
had a significant negative linear relationship with fluoride content in groundwater. The cortical index and cortical
bone volume of the adolescents had a weak linear relationship low fluoride in water. In conclusion bone age,
maturity, the cortical index and the cortical volume index had an inverse relation with the high fluoride in water.
Also, the bone maturity did not occur at the same rate as bone age, cortical index and cortical volume index.
Keywords: Water, fluoride, bone age, maturity, cortical index cortical volume index.
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