MODIFIABLE CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN RURAL AND URBAN POPULATIONS OF SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA
Esien David-Oku*, Alphonsus Ekpe Udoh, Item Justin Atangwho, Ofem Effiong Ofem and Joseph Joseph Andy
Aim: The extent of predisposition to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the South-South, Nigeria, was assessed by a cross-sectional survey of two rural (Ikot Ekpene and Okorette) and one urban (Uyo) locations in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Method: Five communities from each of the three locations were randomly selected; all the houses therein enumerated. The members of each household aged ≥15 years (except members with diabetes mellitus and sickle cell anaemia) were included in the study. Questionnaires designed to obtain information on age, sex, cigarette and alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status were administered. Body weight and height (for calculation of BMI), and blood pressure measurements were taken. Overweight and obesity were defined as BMI ≥ 25.00 Kg/m2 and BMI ≥ 30.00 Kg/m2, respectively; subjects with systolic/ diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) ≥ 140/90mmHg were considered hypertensive. The total number of respondents studied in each location were Ikot Ekpene (N=1313; male 609; female 704); Okorette (N=511; male, 139; female, 372); and Uyo (N= 480; male, 280; female, 200). Results: The level of hypertension in Uyo (10.6%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than Ikot Ekpene (9.9%) and Okorette (6.3%). The trend in obesity prevalence was in tandem with hypertension thus: Uyo (26.5%), Ikot Ekpene (11.1%) and Okorette (8.4%), (p<0.05). Current cigarette smokers (%) were 15.7, 5.8, and 4.5, for Okorette, Uyo and Ikot Ekpene, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the urban dwellers are more at risk of CVDs than the rural populations with overweight/obesity contributing more to this than cigarette smoking.
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, Body mass index, Hypertension, Obesity, Cigarette smoking.
[Full Text Article]