DEFLUORIDATION IN INDIAN SCENARIO: PRESENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVE
Fluoride is frequently depicted as a „double-edged sword‟ as an insufficient intake is related to dental caries and too much ingestion leads to dental and skeletal fluorosis which has no treatment. Prevention is only through the supply of fluoride safe water by using defluoridation techniques. This review article is aimed at providing specific information on attempts made by various researchers in the field of fluoride removal from polluted waters. Various de-fluoridation techniques are currently in use viz., precipitation, ion-exchange, reverse osmosis, electro dialysis, donnan dialysis, nanofiltration, electro coagulation and adsorption etc. And among these techniques, adsorption process is economical, efficient, ease of operation and produces high-quality water. Studies on fluoride removal from waste waters using various adsorbents such as alumina/aluminium based materials, lime, clays and soils, calcium based minerals, bone, bone char, synthetic compounds and carbon based materials are reviewed. The present paper reviews the techniques available and on-going attempts for fluoride removal from polluted waters in India.
Keywords: Fluorosis, de-fluoridation techniques, adsorption.
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