ANTI SNAKE VENOM THERAPY- A REVIEW
*Dr. Jagdish Kumar Anant, Dr. S. R. Inchulkar and Dr. Sangeeta Bhagat
India is estimated to have the highest snakebite mortality in the world. Snakebite victims come mostly from poor rural communities and many are children. Snake bites are life-threatening incidence that can require intensive care. The diagnosis and treatment of venomous snake bites is sometimes difficult for clinicians because sufficient information has not been provided in clinical practice including the administration of anti snake venom therapy. The most appropriate therapy for envenoming is timely administration of the species-appropriate anti snake venom. The rate of administration of anti snake venom should be based on the severity of the case and the patient’s tolerance to the anti snake venom. The entire initial dose should be given as soon as possible and preferably within 4 hours of the bite. In severe envenoming, however, anti snake venom given up to 24 hours after the bite has been shown to reverse coagulation deficits. Before starting anti snake venom therapy, enquiry must be made as to any history of allergy or reaction. There are three types of anti snake venom reaction: early anaphylactic reaction, pyrogenic reaction and late serum sickness. If an immediate anaphylactic reaction occurs, administration of anti snake venom should be immediately discontinued and the patient given an antihistamine or adrenaline as appropriate. The key to management of venomous snakebite is the administration of specific anti snake venom or polyvalent anti snake venom.
Keywords: Anti Snake Venom, Polyvalent, Antivenin, Anaphylaxis, Serum Sickness, Management etc.
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