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An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Esien David-Oku*, Esane Ernest Anani, Oluwatosin Elizabeth Ntaji Roseline Okokon Edide and Juliet Ifeoma Obiajunwa-Otteh


Objective: Conventional fish meal makes up about 60% of the total protein source of aquaculture diet; it is very expensive and difficult to get. This study was aimed at utilizing Moringa oleifera leaf and shrimp meals as alternative protein sources in fish feed production. Method: Graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MLM) (0, 10, 20 and 30%) and same quantity of shrimp meal were added as replacements in a standard formulation to produce fish diets (M0, M10, M20, and M30, respectively). Proximate, mineral and vitamin composition of these diets, plus two commercial feeds (foreign - CopensTM; and local - VitalTM) were analyzed and compared using standard procedures. Results: The formulated feeds had significantly higher (p<0.05) contents of crude fat, fibre, and carbohydrate; but much lower in crude protein than the commercial feeds. The formulated feeds were also significantly richer in Cu, Fe, Zn and P; similar in Mn and Mg; and lower in Ca, Na and K. However, the vitamins profiles of the formulated feeds were significantly poor compared to that of the commercial feeds. Among the MLM supplemented feeds, there was a dose dependent increase in crude fat, crude fibre, protein, carbohydrate, Na, K, and vitamins. M10 was however richer in Cu, Fe, Zn, and P than M20 and M30. Conclusion: Although supplementation with MLM improved protein levels in formulated feeds, it is far from meeting the optimum protein requirement in fish feed. Further studies to reduce chitin and crude fibre content in the formulated feeds are recommended.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera leaf meal Shrimp meal Fish feed Proximate composition Mineral nutrients Vitamins profile.

[Full Text Article]



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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database