SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER: PATHOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Dr. Yeshwant Ganpatrao Kale and Dr. Karan Singh Chandrakar*
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder is a rare type of bladder cancer. The majority of bladder cancers are transitional cell carcinomas that arise in the urinary tract epithelium and can also occur in parts of the kidney, ureter and urethra. The majority of cases are transitional cell carcinomas affecting the tall epithelial cells lining the bladder. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for only 3 to 7% of bladder cancers in Western countries, but in certain countries where parasites are very common (especially schistosomiasis) it is found much more. Material and Methods: Total 29 patients were included in the studies that were diagnosed. All patients underwent ultrasound examination prior to their surgery and histopathological analysis Detailed history of the patient was taken. Demographic data was recorded. Results: Out of 29 patients, 9 patients were in the high-risk category, which included TaHG, T1LG, and T1HG. And 20 patients received Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as induction therapy. A total of 6 patients received 40 mg, 12 patients received 80 mg, and 11 patients received 120 mg of BCG. Each patient received BCG weekly for 6 weeks. Of the 12 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, 17 patients underwent a radical cystectomy and standard pelvic lymph node dissection with urinary diversion. Of the 17 patients, 11 patients had orthotopic neobladder while the remaining 6 underwent illeal conduit. A total of 5 patients died during the study period. Conclusion: EUA is a valuable staging tool that is readily available to all physicians Radical cystoprostatectomy is the treatment of choice with lymph node dissection. In case of muscle is not involved, the intravesical immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette–Guerin is given with regular surveillance cystoscopies. Given recent advances in radiotherapy and previous studies suggesting improved outcomes with radiotherapy, the role of neoadjuvant/adjuvant radiation should be re-evaluated. Immunotherapy may also improve clinical outcomes. Biomarkers and pathological prognostic factors such as staging, grading also help in improving prognosis.
Keywords: SCC, Urinary bladder, schistosomiasis, BCG, TaHG, T1LG, and T1HG.
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