CHILDHOOD OBESITY CAN LEAD TO TYPE 2 DIABETES AND HIGH CHOLESTEROL IN ADOLESCENTS
Salwa Abdul Salam*, Priya Thomas, Dr. Abel Abraham Thomas, Dr. Elessy Abraham
Childhood obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents worldwide. Approximately 43 million individuals are obese, 21-24% children and adolescents are overweight and 16-18% of individuals has abdominal obesity. Obesity increases the risk of diabetes type 2 and high cholesterol in children and adults. It predisposes the individual to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, liver and kidney diseases and causes reproductive dysfunction in adults. Factors, such as eating habits, genetics, environment, metabolism and lifestyle play an important role in the development of obesity. Over 90% of obesity cases are idiopathic and less than 10% are associated with genetic and hormonal causes. Obesity occurs when the body consumes more calories than it burns, through overeating and under exercising. The symptoms of obesity include breathing disorders, sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, certain types of cancer such as prostate, bowel, breast and uterine, coronary heart disease, diabetes (type 2 in children), depression, liver and gallbladder problems, gastro-esophageal reflux disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, stroke and joint diseases such as osteoarthritis, pain in knees and lower back. Environmental, behavioral such as consumption of foods, genetic and family factors contribute to pediatric obesity. Obesity can be countered through lower calorie consumption, weight loss and diet programs, as well as increased physical activity. A number of endogenous molecules, leptin, are known to affect body weight. These molecules serve as potential targets for the pharmacological manipulation of obesity. Sibutramine and orlistat are primarily used for the treatment of adult obesity, which produces modest weight loss. For children and obese adolescents, metformin is used in the case of insulin resistance and hyper-insulinemia. Bariatric surgery is performed for the treatment of severe childhood obesity. The causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity and how it causes diabetes type 2 and high cholesterol are described in the present review.
Keywords: Childhood, Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, Cholesterol, Adolescents.
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