A REVIEW ON PARKINSON’S DISEASE
Soumya R. V.*, Babitha M., Nithin Manohar R., Neethu J., Jisha Vijayan, Sruthy S. A.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a neuronal accumulation of the presynaptic protein synuclein and by variable degrees of parkinsonism, defined as a paucity and slowness of movement (bradykinesia), tremor at rest, rigidity, shuffling gait, and flexed posture. Nearly all forms of parkinsonism result from a reduction of dopaminergic transmission within the basal ganglia. . The incidence of PD is between 8 and 18 per 100,000 person in years. Prevalence in India is ab70/100,000 population and this is lower than that reported in the West. Most PD cases occur sporadically and of unknown cause. Twin studies suggest that environmental factors likely play the more important role in patient older than 50 years, with genetic factors being more important in younger patients. In PD dopaminergic and other cells die due to a combination of factors including: Genetic vulnerability, Oxidative stress, Proteosomal dysfunction, Environmental factors. Many risk factors and protective factors have been proposed, sometimes in relation to theories concerning possible mechanisms of the disease. None have been conclusively related to Parkinson’s disease by empirical evidence. Therapy in PD are to maintain function and quality of life and to avoid drug-induced complications. This is obtained through the use of drugs that either increase dopaminergic actions or diminish neuronal outflow from the striatum.
Keywords: PD, signs and symptoms, pathogenesis, treatment.
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