NEW ARBS IN THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION: AN OVERVIEW
Nithin Manohar R.*, Babitha M., Soumya R. V., Jisha Vijayan, Sruthy S. A. and Neethu J.
Azilsartan medoxomil (Edarbi®; Ipreziv™) is an orally administered angiotensin II receptor type 1 antagonist (blocker) used in the treatment of adults with essential hypertension. This article reviews data on the clinical efficacy and tolerability of azilsartan medoxomil in adults with essential hypertension and provides a summary of its pharmacological properties. Azilsartan medoxomil is a prodrug that undergoes rapid hydrolysis in the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration to the bioactive moiety azilsartan, before systemic absorption. Azilsartan medoxomil produces antihypertensive effects by selectively blocking the binding of angiotensin II to the angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptor, thereby antagonizing the pressor response activity of angiotensin II. In vitro, azilsartan produced greater and more sustained AT(1) receptor binding/blockade activity than several comparator angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Azilsartan medoxomil reduces blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive adults. In addition, the drug has been shown to have pleiotropic effects (i.e. effects beyond AT(1) receptor blockade). In adults with essential hypertension, azilsartan medoxomil 20, 40 or 80 mg effectively reduced BP over a 24-hour period with once-daily administration in three major, randomized, controlled trials in which the primary endpoints were changes from baseline in 24-hour mean systolic BP (SBP) at week 6 (two trials) or week 24, assessed by ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). In the two 6-week trials, azilsartan medoxomil showed dose-dependent efficacy over all evaluated dosages and was more effective than placebo in lowering SBP. At the maximum approved dosage of 80 mg once daily, azilsartan medoxomil was significantly more effective than maximum dosages of olmesartan medoxomil (40 mg once daily) or valsartan (320 mg once daily), based on primary endpoint assessments. Mean reductions in clinic measurements of SBP and diastolic BP (DBP) measurements were also generally greater with azilsartan medoxomil 80 mg once daily than with the comparator drugs in these 6-week studies. Over a longer treatment period of 24 weeks, azilsartan medoxomil showed sustained BP-lowering efficacy, with the reduction in 24-hour mean SBP at week 24 significantly greater with azilsartan medoxomil 40 or 80 mg once daily than with valsartan 320 mg once daily. Mean reductions from baseline in mean clinic SBP and DBP as well as DBP by ABPM were also significantly greater with azilsartan medoxomil 40 or 80 mg once daily than with valsartan. Azilsartan medoxomil was generally well tolerated, with a tolerability profile similar to that of placebo in the 6-week trials. Across the three major trials, headache and dizziness were among the most common adverse events. Overall, rates of treatment discontinuation as a result of adverse events were low in the 6-week and 24-week trials. In conclusion, once-daily azilsartan medoxomil effectively lowers BP in adults with essential hypertension and has shown better antihypertensive efficacy than maximum therapeutic dosages of olmesartan medoxomil or valsartan in major trials of up to 24 weeks' duration. Azilsartan medoxomil is generally well tolerated and the low rates of discontinuation due to adverse events suggest that patients are likely to persist with long-term treatment. Azilsartan medoxomil is therefore a useful and attractive new option for lowering BP in patients with essential hypertension, particularly for those not able to tolerate other antihypertensive drugs. Further studies are required to evaluate the effects of azilsartan medoxomil on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Keywords: Azilsartan medoxomil azilsartan medoxomil on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
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