EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57

Abstract

SILYMARIN: IS IT A TRITON AMONG THE MINNOWS?

*Dr. Bushra Hasan Khan, Dr. Jameel Ahmad, Prof. Farida Ahmad and Prof. Syed Mobashir Yunus.

ABSTRACT

The flavonoid silymarin has documented hepatoprotective properties. The mechanisms of action are still poorly understood. However, the data in the literature indicate that silymarin acts in four different ways: as antioxidants, scavengers and regulators of the intracellular content of glutathione; as cell membrane stabilisers and permeability regulators that prevent hepatotoxic agents from entering hepatocytes; as promoters of ribosomal RNA synthesis, stimulating liver regeneration; and as inhibitors of the transformation of stellate hepatocytes into myofibroblasts. The key mechanism that ensures hepatoprotection appears to be free radical scavenging. Anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties have also been documented. Silymarin is able to neutralise the hepatotoxicity of several agents, including Amanita phalloides, ethanol, paracetamol (acetaminophen) and carbon tetrachloride in animal models. Hepatoprotection has been documented by improvement in liver function tests; moreover, treatment with silymarin was associated with an increase in survival in a placebo-controlled clinical trial in alcoholic liver disease. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that silymarin is absorbed by the oral route and that it distributes into the liver, stomach, intestine, and pancreas. It is mainly excreted as metabolites in the bile, and, is subject to enterohepatic circulation. Toxicity is very low, the oral 50% lethal dose being 10,000 mg/kg in rats and the maximum tolerated dose being 300 mg/kg in dogs. Moreover, silymarin is devoid of embryotoxic potential. In conclusion, silymarin is a well-tolerated and effective antidote for use in hepatotoxicity produced by a number of toxins. Numerous experimental studies suggest that it acts as a free radical scavenger, with other liver-specific properties that make it a unique hepatoprotective agent.

Keywords: Silymarin, Hepatoprotective, Carbon tetrachloride.


[Full Text Article]

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )