( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Roli C. Madubuko* and Benson U. Okwara


Background: The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved patients’ survival. There is however limited information in Nigeria on HAART associated cutaneous reactions which may lead to increased morbidity. Aim: To determine the prevalence and pattern of cutaneous medication reactions in HAART experienced and HAART naive patients in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Methods: This was a comparative cross sectional study that involved 330 HAART experienced patients and 330 HAART naive patients. Patients were evaluated for cutaneous medication reactions. Results: The mean age of the HAART experienced group and HAART naïve group were 42.±10yrs and 40±11 years respectively. The male: female ratio of the HAART naïve and experienced population were 1.9:1 and 3:1 respectively. The median CD4 count of the HAART naive group was significantly lower than the HAART experienced group (275.5vs 487cells/μ p = < 0.01).Cutaneous medication reactions was present in 19(5.8%) of the HAART experienced patients and only 1(0.3%) of the HAART naïve group (P = < 0.01). Among the HAART experienced group, 14 (4.2%) had melanonychia, 3(0.9%) had zidovudine induced skin pigmentation and 2(0.6%) had lipodystrophy 2(0.6%). Lichenoid drug eruption 1(0.3%) was the only cutaneous medication reaction in the HAART naïve group. Conclusion: Cutaneous medication reactions was more common in the HAART experienced patients. Melanonychia was the most common cutaneous medication reactions among our patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Keywords: HAART, HIV, Cutaneous medication reaction.

[Full Text Article]



  • New Issue Published

    Its Our pleasure to inform you that, EJPMR 1 November 2021 Issue has been Published, Kindly check it on


    NOVEMBER Issue has been successfully launched on 1 November 2021.

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    Its our Pleasure to Inform you that EJPMR Impact Factor has been increased from  5.804 to 6.222, due to high quality Publication at International Level

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )