STRATEGIES AND KINETICS OF INDUSTRIAL FERMENTATION FOR THE MASS PRODUCTION OF VARIOUS PRIMARY AND SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM MICROBES
Sikander Ali*, Syeda Tasmia Asma, Syeda Fatima Nadeem and Muneeba Samar
This review is mainly focused on the microbial cultivation, microbial growth kinetics, factors affecting the microbial growth and the metabolites production from various microbes. Different physical and chemical conditions play a vital role in the microbial cell growth by suppressing and as well as flourishing their growth. Several fermentation strategies are available for microbial cultivation such as batch cultivation, fed batch cultivation and continuous cultivation. For batch culture, a closed system is needed having minimum amount of important nutrients initially whereas for fed batch cultivation, new fresh medium are added continuously resulting in the increase in biomass concentration with time. Continuous cultures are the systems which are open and in which fresh medium is added continuously in fermentation chamber however the amount of medium present in the container remains constant. All above strategies are being used for production of various useful products that are of great importance to human beings as they are being directly used as food or drugs, or indirectly used as materials in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The growing list of fermentation products includes primary metabolites (ethanol, citric acid and glutamic acid), secondary metabolites (antimicrobial drugs), enzymes (amylase, cellulase, xylanase, lipase and protease), vaccines (hepatitis A, B and some combination vaccines) and therapeutic proteins (interferon, human growth hormone and insulin).
Keywords: Microbes, Batch cultivation, Fed-batch cultivation, Continuous cultivation, Primary metabolites, Secondary metabolites.
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