EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

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An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

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 ISSN 2394-3211

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Abstract

PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE SCAPULA OF RABBIT

Mahmoud M. Elgendy, Ahmed E. Rashwan, Ahmed G. Nomir, Ahmed I. Sayed-Ahmed and Ashraf A. El Sharaby*

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of the scapular development in rabbit embryos using light microscopic examination. Tissue sections were prepared from specimens collected at the embryonic day (E) 11, 14, 17, 21 and 28 days, and stained with hematoxylin and Eosin, Safranin-O, Periodic Acid-Schiff, von Kossa's stains and Fast green as well as double staining of Alcian blue with Alizarin Red. We observed the following characteristic chronological sequences: 1) At E11, the limb bud was formed of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells, marginal vein, apical ectodermal ridge and progress zone. 2) At E14, the scapular blade appeared as a condensation of mesenchymal cells differentiated into chondrocytes. 3) At E17, endochondral ossification was induced after the invasion of blood vessels and formation of three different types of chondrocytes arranged in morphologically distinct zones. 4) At E21, appearance of primary ossification center within the scapula. There were two primary ossification centers; one within the center of scapular blade and the second one in the scapular spines. Ossification extended bidirectionally in both sides and elongation of the scapula continuous until taken mostly the shape of the future scapula. 5) At E28, remodeling and resorption processes of scapula occurred due to a substantial increase in the number of osteoclast and osteocytes. We conclude that the prenatal pattern of scapular development is peculiar in rabbit, and that our results provide better understanding of bone growth in the flat bone and are useful for teratological and clinical studies of regeneration and healing of flat bone.

Keywords: Rabbit - Scapula - Development – Ossification.


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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database Academia