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An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , Academia , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 7.065

 ICV - 79.57



Noha Awwad, Emad Eldin Elgendy, Nabil Mohamed and Madiha Salah Ibrahim*


Microbial proteases are responsible for proteolytic cleavage activation of Influenza A Virus (H5N1 and H9N2) hemagglutinin (HA). We examined the proteolytic activities of some pathogenic bacterial isolates such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Mycoplasma gallisepticum. The contribution of endogenous and microbial proteases (exogenous proteases) in the avian influenza pathogenicity were studied by inoculation of three groups of embryonated chicken eggs (SPF). The first group was inoculated simultaneously with either viruses; H5 and H9, with different concentrations of bacterial proteases. The second group was inoculated with pre-incubated viruses with different concentrations of the bacterial proteases. The third group was control (virus only, protease only and PBS). An increase in viruses’ titer was observed in eggs inoculated with virus treated with microbial proteases incomparable to that inoculated with untreated viruses. These results confirmed the synergism between influenza virus and pathogenic bacteria based on proteolytic activation of the hemagglutinin by bacterial proteases. Further, H9N2 virus titer was significantly increased as compared to H5N1 virus titer in eggs with prominent increase of H9N2 virulence that was noted in the death time of the eggs reaching that of H5N1. M. gallisepticum showed an increase in virus titer but lower than that caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa revealing the difference between serine and cysteine proteases in cleavage activation of influenza virus HA.

Keywords: S. Aureus, P. Aeruginosa, M. Gallisepticum, Proteases, AIV.

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database Academia