THE PROFILE OF ACUTE POISONING AND ENVENOMATIONS IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA- A 5 YEAR RETROSPECTIVE STUDY
Ayinbuomwan A. S.* and Isah A. O.
Acute poisoning is a medical emergency. It comprises injuries in which the toxic effects manifest almost immediately. This study profiled the cases of acute poisoning and envenomations presenting to the Adult Medical Emergency in a tertiary hospital in South -South, Nigeria. It is a retrospective, and descriptive study. This study was conducted between January 2013 and December 2017. A total number of 152 patients (acute poisoning 86, envenomations 66) were recorded during this study period. Those with a diagnosis of acute poisoning had more males (59, 68.6%) than females (27, 31.4%), with a male to female ratio of 2.2:1. The mean age (SD, range) age was 37.8 (18.2, 19-96) years. More than half of the cases of acute poisoning in this study were accidental (53, 61.6%). There were 66 cases of envenomations (92.4% snake, 7.6% scorpion); of these 36 (54.5%) were males while 30 (45.5%) were females, with a male to female ratio of 1.2:1. The mean age was 34.7 ± 12.6, with an age range of 18-83 years. Those between age group 18-40 years (young adults) constituted 62.1% of the victims. Pharmaceuticals were the most implicated among the acute poisonings (33, 38.5%), followed by alcohol (20, 23.3%). Pesticides and carbon monoxide poisoning were 13 (15.1%) and 4(4.7%) respectively. In conclusion, the findings in this study suggest a need for a more comprehensive health education and general public awareness on the risks and dangers of poisoning. Profiling of epidemiological data of acute poisoning by developing countries will enhance effective prevention and control of poisoning, thus decreasing morbidity and mortality.
Keywords: Acute poisoning, Envenomations, Nigeria.
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