THE INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY
Dr. Deepti Parmar*, Dr. G. C. Rajput, Dr. Vinod Kashyap, Dr. K.P. Chaudhary and Dr. Praveen Panwar
Purpose: To study the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity at Indira Gandhi Medical College Shimla and Kamla Nehru State Hospital For Mother & Child Shimla in the hilly terrain of Himachal Pradesh. Methods: A hospital based prospective observational study was conducted from July2014 to June2015at neonatal intensive care unit and ophthalmology unit at Indira Gandhi Medical College Shimla and Kamla Nehru State Hospital For Mother & Child Shimla. 92 babies admitted to the neonatal unit who were â‰¤ 1750gms or whose gestation was â‰¤ 34 weeks were examined by an ophthalmologist by indirect ophthalmoscope at 4 weeks postnatal age. Results: Out of 92 babies screened 22 babies developed ROP. The incidence of ROP was 23.92%.Out of 22 babies who developed ROP 8 (36.36%) had stage 1, 6 (27.27%) had stage 2, 7 (31.81%) had stage 3, 1 (4.54%) had APROP, 1 (4.54%) had preplus disease and 2 (9.09%) had plus disease. On univariate analysis birth weight, gestational age, oxygen administration, duration of oxygen exposure, respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, anemia, blood transfusion, congenital cardiac defects, multiple birth, premature rupture of membranes were found to be significant risk factors. In the present study thrombocytopenia, neonatal jaundice, phototherapy, apnea, surfactant, hpoxic ischemic encephalopathy, antenatal steroid intake, gestational diabetes mellitus, pregnancy induced hypertension, antepartum hemorrhage were however not found as significant risk factor. Conclusion: Lower gestation age, lower birth weight, sepsis, apnea, blood transfusion, duration of oxygen are associated with a greater incidence of retinopathy prematurity. These factors must be prevented and more care for early detection of retinopathy should be conducted.
Keywords: Retinopathy of Prematurity, Neonatal risk factors, Low birth weight, Preterm infant.
[Full Text Article]