DIFFERENT TYPES OF INDUSTRIAL FERMENTORS AND THEIR ASSOCIATED OPERATIONS FOR THE MASS PRODUCTION OF METABOLITES
Sikander Ali*, Ayesha Rafique, Mariam Ahmed and Sadia Sakandar
The process of fermentation involves production of gases, alcohols or organic acids, by the consumption of sugars using pure culture of microbes. Fermentation Process is carried out in specially designed vessel called as fermenter or bioreactor. This vessel is utilized to support the growth conditions of microorganisms carrying out fermentation. Its design and construction must provide the optimum environment conditions to the microorganisms. Fermenters are usually the cylinder shaped vessels having spherical top or bottom with varying sizes ranging from liters to cubic meters made up of stainless steel or glass. In fermenters are biological reactions are allowed to occur under very controlled conditions. The designing and operation of a fermenter is mainly based upon the organism used for fermentation, optimum conditions required for the desired product formation, value of the product and the production scale. It also involves investment and the running cost. There are various types of bioreactors used in fermentation industry and their operations are mainly based upon the microbial cells carrying out fermentation and the product which has to be achieved after that fermentation. This article comprises a brief description of various types of fermenters, their operations, applications, advantages and disadvantages. However further efforts are needed to boost up technology and performance of bioreactors. Strategies must be designed to lower cost of fermentation and construction of fermenters no matter which product is being produced. Novel and innovative industrial products can be developed very easily by establishing a more sustainable industrial production
Keywords: fermenters, bioreactors, fermentation, fluidized bed fermenter, baffle.
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