DEFINITION AND COUNT OF A’?? MUFRADA (SIMPLE ORGANS): A CRITICAL REVIEW
Mohd. Anus Ansari and Ashhar Qadeer
Purpose: This paper aims to direct the unani scholars to research and analyze the things and make them more clear and accurate. This paper also giving the direction that how the listing and understanding of A’ḍā basῑṭa (simple organ) should be done and research must go on to validate the A’ḍā basῑṭa in the light of definitions given by unani scholars and modern histology. The A’ḍā Mufrada (simple organs) comes on number four in Umūr Ṭabῑ‘yya. Ali Ibne Abbas and Ibne Sina says akhlāṭ are the proximate principles for the human body, but the more proximate are A’ḍā e basῑṭa which are composed of akhlāṭ and A’ḍā Aliya (A’ḍā) are composed of A’ḍā e basῑṭa. A’ḍā Mufrada are also known as A’ḍā basῑṭa /A’ḍā mutashābihal al-ajzā’. A’ḍā Mufrada is defined as the organ which consists of the smallest part of that resembles exactly to the whole organ. A simple organ is therefore, homogeneous in their structure throughout e.g. a piece of bone is also known as a bone, as applied for the whole bone. (Ibne Sina 980-1037). The definition completely confirms to the description of tissues available today. Infact the Ṭibbῑ physician call the tissues as A’ḍā basῑṭa (simple organ). These A’ḍā are said to be made up of primary combinations i.e. combination of the smallest unit of A’ḍā known as khaliyya (cell). These A’ḍā Mufrada should be reviewed and revised for their anatomical, physiological, morphological and histological knowledge but it must be remain on the definition of A’ḍā Mufrada which is given by unani scholars and they may be concluded that either they are single or compound like: Sharāyīn, Awrida, Mukh, Zufr, Sha’r. On the basis of definition and organization of A’ḍā Mufrada, the list given by unani scholars must re-organized.
Keywords: Unani, Definition and count of simple organs, A’?? Mufrada (simple organs).
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