EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

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An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

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Abstract

DEFINITION AND COUNT OF A’?? MUFRADA (SIMPLE ORGANS): A CRITICAL REVIEW

Mohd. Anus Ansari and Ashhar Qadeer

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This paper aims to direct the unani scholars to research and analyze the things and make them more clear and accurate. This paper also giving the direction that how the listing and understanding of A’ḍā basῑṭa (simple organ) should be done and research must go on to validate the A’ḍā basῑṭa in the light of definitions given by unani scholars and modern histology. The A’ḍā Mufrada (simple organs) comes on number four in Umūr Ṭabῑ‘yya. Ali Ibne Abbas and Ibne Sina says akhlāṭ are the proximate principles for the human body, but the more proximate are A’ḍā e basῑṭa which are composed of akhlāṭ and A’ḍā Aliya (A’ḍā) are composed of A’ḍā e basῑṭa. A’ḍā Mufrada are also known as A’ḍā basῑṭa /A’ḍā mutashābihal al-ajzā’. A’ḍā Mufrada is defined as the organ which consists of the smallest part of that resembles exactly to the whole organ. A simple organ is therefore, homogeneous in their structure throughout e.g. a piece of bone is also known as a bone, as applied for the whole bone. (Ibne Sina 980-1037). The definition completely confirms to the description of tissues available today. Infact the Ṭibbῑ physician call the tissues as A’ḍā basῑṭa (simple organ). These A’ḍā are said to be made up of primary combinations i.e. combination of the smallest unit of A’ḍā known as khaliyya (cell). These A’ḍā Mufrada should be reviewed and revised for their anatomical, physiological, morphological and histological knowledge but it must be remain on the definition of A’ḍā Mufrada which is given by unani scholars and they may be concluded that either they are single or compound like: Sharāyīn, Awrida, Mukh, Zufr, Sha’r. On the basis of definition and organization of A’ḍā Mufrada, the list given by unani scholars must re-organized.

Keywords: Unani, Definition and count of simple organs, A’?? Mufrada (simple organs).


[Full Text Article]

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )