( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Al-Hamad Mahmood*, Mariam Zaka and Amara Siddique


Background: Given the growing worldwide market of non-prescription drugs, monitoring their misuse in the context of self-medication represents a particular challenge in Public Health. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of misuse, abuse, and dependence on non-prescription psychoactive drugs(paracetamol, codeine combined with paracetamol in analgesics, or sedative H1 antihistamines) that lead to the development of tolerance; withdrawal symptoms; frequent use of higher doses than intended; persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to control drug use; rising costs of health services, development of side effects; and the negative effects of the drug use on health, social, or professional life. Objectives: This study will evaluate the pertinent factors contributing to the misuse and dependence on Non-Prescription Codeine Analgesics or Sedative H1 Antihistamines by adults worldwide. Methods: A observational study design was adopted using convenient sampling technique, during the period June-2017 to August-2017. A sample size of 100 adults between 18-55 years age, was taken and data was collected from community pharmacies in Lahore Pakistan. A data collection form was designed and was filled during face to face interviews with them. Data was presented in percentage. Results: Number of medicines/prescription used were pulmonol syrup 16%, diphenhydramine 4%, phenergan 4%, hydrallin syrup 26%, avil 20%, and paracetamol 30%. The most commonly adverse effects regarding non-prescribed drugs were sedation, gastrointestinal disturbance, drowsiness and motion sickness. Conclusion: It was concluded that non-prescribed OTC medicines availability from pharmacies can help individuals to self-manage symptoms. Adult used non-prescribed codeine and H1antihistamine to relief pain, insomnia and anxiety. However, they may be abused, dependent or misused due to lack of knowledge & proper guidance. It may results in sedation, drowsiness or other GIT disturbance. The results obtained in the present study on the prevalence of problematic uses of codeine analgesics and H1 blockers in non-prescription drugs requesting that clinical management should be improved.

Keywords: Non-Prescription Codiene analgesics, H1 Anti-histamines Sedatives, Adults, Misuse, Dependence.

[Full Text Article]



  • New Issue Published

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database