QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAVES AND FRUIT EXTRACTS OF SOLANUM TRILOBATUM L.
Dr. Mariappan Senthilkumar*
In the present study, quantitative analysis of phytochemicals and in vitro antimicrobial potentials of different solvent extracts of Solanum trilobatum were demonstrated. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrate, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, polyphenols, tannins, terpenoids with absence of anthraquinones and steroids. The results validate the traditional uses of S. trilobatum in treatment of various diseases. Five gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus cremoris, Streptococcus fecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and seven gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella boydi, Shigella dysentriae) bacterial strains were tested. The ethanol extracts of leaves have been showed encouraging results. The maximum inhibition were recorded 38.1 mm in Bacillus cereus at 250 μl concentration followed by S. aureus (32.3 mm), E. coli (30.8 mm), S. cremoris (29.6 mm), P. aeruginosa (29.3 mm), Klebsiella pneumonia (26.2 mm), Shigella dysentriae (25.4 mm), Proteus vulgaris (24.6 mm), Streptococcus fecalis (24.3 mm) and Shigella boydi (24.3 mm), B. subtilis (19.3 mm) and least inhibition was observed in S. paratyphi (18.2 mm). When compare to leaves, fruit extracts showed higher antibacterial activity. Ethanol extracts of fruits showed maximum inhibition 40.2 mm in Bacillus cereus at 250 μl concentration followed by S. aureus (35.2 mm), E. coli (33.6 mm), P. aeruginosa (31.0 mm), S. cremoris (30.2 mm), Shigella dysentriae (28.6 mm), Proteus vulgaris (27.4 mm), Klebsiella pneumonia (27.2 mm), Shigella boydi (25.4 mm), Streptococcus fecalis (25.2 mm) and, B. subtilis (20.3 mm) and least inhibition was observed in S. paratyphi (19.1 mm). Moderate activity was observed in chloroform extract. Minimum activity was observed in hexane extract at different concentration tested. Compared to synthetic antibiotic Ampicillin (50 mg), solvent extracts showed significant antibacterial activity. The present findings support to the traditional knowledge of the medicinal plants to the local users and plants used as therapeutic agents for treat several diseases caused by the human pathogenic bacterial populations. This study confirms significant antibacterial activity of Solanum trilobatum.
Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Solanum trilobatum, Bioactive compounds, Antimicrobial activity.
[Full Text Article]