CHANGING TRENDS IN THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ACUTE BACTERIAL MENINGITIS IN "AFRICAN MENINGITIS BELT": A CRITICAL REVIEW
Balarabe S. A.*
In "African meningitis belt" Regional prevalence of meningococcal meningitis in epidemic years ranges from 400-1000 cases per 100,000 populations. In recent time, there have been outbreaks of meningitis serotype C in Nigeria, initially limited to a few areas in Kebbi and Sokoto states in 2013 and 2014. In 2015, however, there were more than two thousand five hundred (2500) cases of the disease across three states in Nigeria as well as eight thousand five hundred (8500) cases in Niger. Studies of the epidemiology of meningococcal disease demonstrate significant differences in Serogroup distributions by geographic regions. The introduction of MenC vaccines in Europe, MenACWY in the United States and Canada, and MACV in Africa appear to be associated with declines in vaccine type disease and shifts in serotype distributions in those geographic regions. Therefore, although, the exact genes involved in capsular switching have not been well elucidated, reductions in the morbidity and mortality associated with Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) may be achieved with the introduction of Serogroup appropriate vaccines based on epidemiologic data.
Keywords: Epidemiology "African meningitis Belt" Meningococcemia, Cerebrospinal Meningitis, Cerebrospinal fluid, Serogroup C.
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