EFFECT OF OMEGA-3 ON CARDIAC MUSCLE STRUCTURE IN A MODEL OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS IN RAT. A LIGHT AND ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY
Nevine Bahaa* and Azza Abd El Moneim Attia
Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common form of chronic inflammatory arthritis. High percent of premature mortality in RA patients was largely attributable to cardiovascular diseases. Unfortunately, no curative treatment was found for this disease yet. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were largely studied for their anti-inflammatory effects. Aim of the work: to evaluate the effect of omega-3 PUFAs on the myocardial structure of left ventricle (LV) in a model of Adjuvant-induced RA in rats. Material and methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups; control group, RA group and omega 3-treated group. RA was induced by single subcutaneous injection of complete Freund adjuvant in hind paw of rats. Omega-3 was orally administered after two weeks of RA induction, and continued daily for another two weeks. The ankle joint and the heart were dissected out after two and four weeks and processed for light microscopic examination. Specimens from the left ventricle were also processed for transmission electron microscopic examination. Histomorphometric studies and statistical analysis were also done. Results: RA was confirmed histologically in the ankle joint after two weeks. The LV also showed focal degeneration of the myocardium, and mononuclear cellular infiltration that was more evident after four weeks of untreated RA. Omega-3 treated group showed significant decrease of myocardial structure damage. Conclusion and recommendations: Omega-3 significantly ameliorated the structural damage of LV myocardium after RA induction. It is highly recommended to use omega 3 PUFAs regularly as early as possible in RA cases.
Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, cardiac muscle, omega 3, rats, complete Freund Adjuvant.
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