EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57

Abstract

STUDY OF HEME BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY, ITS REGULATION BY ENZYMES, DISORDERS AND DISEASES DUE TO HEREDITARY GENE ALTERCATIONS

Sikander Ali*, Maira Javed and Aniqa Zia

ABSTRACT

Heme is synthesized naturally in almost all living organisms. There are various steps involved in the pathway of heme biosynthesis. Eight enzymes are involved in the making of heme. Liver and erythrocytes are two main sites for the heme synthesis as it forms cytochrome P450 that is important for the detoxification of xenobiotic compounds that are injected by individuals. Reticuloendothelial system at extracellular sites is involved in the removal and degradation of the old blood cells. Heme is released from hemoglobin and is degraded. Various factors are involved in regulating the expression of gene coding for the enzymes used in heme synthesis pathways. Heme oxygenase activity can be inhibited by other Porphyrins that contain certain metal ions other than iron (ferrous ion). Various disorders in heme biosynthesis can hinder the process; Porphyria is the main among them. Porphyria‟s are inherited and acquired disorders that are linked with the partially defective enzymatic activities of the heme biosynthesis pathway and increased level of precursors. Various types of Porphyria have been studied in this review. Here, a case report has also been included in which disease manifestation and symptoms have been illuminated. These attacks could be controlled by proper medication and hospitalization.

Keywords: Heme, Metalloporphyrins, ALAS1, ALAS2, Feedback control, Protoporphyrin, Reticuloendothelial system, and AIP.


[Full Text Article]

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )