MONOAMINE OXIDASE AND ITS INHIBITORS CORRELATING TO NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS (REVIEW)
Sikander Ali*, Maria Najeeb, Aiman Tahir Laghari and Nimra Zafar
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) (EC 18.104.22.168), an insoluble mitochondrial enzyme is the focus of a substantial literature. The enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of a large number of xenobiotic and biogenic amine substrates, including small-molecule monoamines as well as of proteins with modified amino acids. Monoamine oxidase has an important role in peripheral tissues and central nervous system where it performs the metabolism of vasoactive and neuroactive amines. Preferentially this enzyme targets phenylethylamine, benzylamine and a large number of neurotransmitters such as NE, 5-HT, DA, EP and PEA. The basic function of this enzyme is the modulation of brain neurotransmitters that are associated with numerous disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases including schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, migraine and sexual maturation. Direct study of this enzyme is the biggest constraint due to the accessibility problem. For various practical purposes only lymphocytes despite of their harvesting problem have been used in routine studies as an enzyme source. After the discovery of enzyme structure, substrate and activity the major concern of scientists was to work for MAO inhibitors development for the treatment of depressive illness. This review focuses on MAO structure, types, activity and role in various diseases.
Keywords: Monoamine Oxidase, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, Neuro-degenerative diseases, Schizophrenia, cerebral ischaemia
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