( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



*Sani Ibn Yakubu, Nasiru Yakubu Ikunaiye, Rosaline I. Aderemi-Williams, Abubakar Babakura Tijjani and Abdul-Basit Haliru Yakubu


Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) is a well-recognized form of drug misuse which needs concerted action. Awareness of this problem among pharmacy undergraduates is extremely vital. Objective: This study was to assess the prevalence of SMA and factors influencing the practice among pharmacy undergraduates of the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Method: A cross-sectional, pre-tested questionnaire-based survey using stratified, random sampling technique to collect the relevant information pertaining to the study variables. Results: A total of 185 students parcitipated (response rate of 100%). Out of these, 79 students (42.7%) were females, 106 (57.3%) males and their mean age was 23 years. Non-married students were in majority. Among them, 92.% had SMA, more than one SMA episode (60.1%) and had recommended antibiotics (69.9%) in the last one year. The most common conditions that prompted SMA were catarrh/cough (20.5%) and diarrhoea (19.6%), while the most self-medicated antibiotics among the students was metronidazole (17.3%), followed by amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin (15.0%). Most students (41.5%) had incomplete course of treatment and the outstanding reason cited for SMA was past successful treatment (81.9%). Conclusion: The prevalence of SMA was found to be high, but there was no significant variation (p > 0.05) in SMA based on gender, age, marital status, perception on antibiotic resistance, prior knowledge of antibiotics and level of knowledge on antibiotics. Furthermore, our findings revealed a significant assocition between high students' university level and the prevalence of SMA.

Keywords: self-medication, antibiotics, pharmacy, students, prevalence.

[Full Text Article]



  • New Issue Published

    Its Our pleasure to inform you that, EJPMR 1 November 2021 Issue has been Published, Kindly check it on


    NOVEMBER Issue has been successfully launched on 1 November 2021.

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )