RENAL TOXICITY OF THE FOOD ADDITIVE POTASSIUM BROMATE ON THE FRESH WATER FISH LABEO ROHITA
Rashmi P. T., Sherine Laura A. and Pawlin Vasanthi Joseph*
Potassium bromate (KBrO3), a white crystalline solid and a widely reactive food additive is often used in bakeries as flour improver, yielding higher bread volume and used as a dough conditioner for flour. The problem of Potassium bromate started with ozonation of drinking water to form bromate as a major by product. When research was done to confirm the safety of ozonated water, it was found that Potassium bromate causes renal cancer in rats when they drank water with Potassium bromate. The aim of the present study is to estimate the renal toxicity of the food additive potassium bromate on the freshwater fish Labio rohita. The study includes determining the LC50 concentration of Potassium bromate in fish, the enzyme level, SGOT and SGPT which are functional markers of kidney, urea and creatinine level of the serum for ascertaining the function of the kidney and to study the histopathological changes in the kidney. LC50 for 96 hrs was determined by Probit analysis method. Sub-chronic doses of KBrO3 such as 100mg/l, 130mg/l, 160mg/l, 190mg/l was taken for study. The experimental set up was maintained for 30 days. Significant increase in SGOT and SGPT levels and significant increase in Urea and decrease in creatinine levels have been observed. The kidney show normal glomeruli with congested tubules, increased interstitial inflammation and dilated blood vessels. The degenerative changes in the kidney tubules reinforce that this chemical has a direct nephrotoxic action.
Keywords: Potassium bromate, ozonation, LC50, nephrotoxic, SGOT, SGPT, Urea, Creatinine, histopathology.
[Full Text Article]