EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57

Abstract

ASSESSMENT OF WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE AMONG BASIC SCHOOLS IN ELOBEID

Dr. Mohammed Ismail Humaida Ismail*

ABSTRACT

Background: Water and sanitation improvements, in association with hygiene behavior change, can have significant effects on population and health by reducing a variety of disease conditions such as diarrhea, intestinal helminths, guinea worm, and skin diseases. Objective: The objective of this study is to assess water, sanitation and hygiene among Basic schools in El-Obied, North Kordofan State. Methodology: This facility based cross-sectional study comprised of 428 students selected from 12 schools. Data were collected via questionnaire as well as the interviews, observation checklist and bacteriological tests of water. Data were analyzed by SPSS software, version 11.5. Results: The study showed that 13 samples of drinking water contain coliform organism, and 10 samples of water contain E.Coli while 4 samples of water without pollution. Inaddition study showed that 33% of schools under study in El-Obied have unsafe primary water source. The quantity of water was not adequate in all schools under study, and there is no any hand washing facilities in all schools surveyed so the student did not practice handwashing in their schools. The present study showed that a toilets was not available in about three (25%) of schools under study. The study showed that all toilets of schools are dirty, improper design and contains insects of medical important such as flies, and cockroachs. Conclusion: the study conclude that; most of water samples were contaminated, the storage of water in schools was inappropriate and the latrines were dirty insufficient and there is no handwashing facilities in all school under study.

Keywords: Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, basic school, El-Obeid, Sudan.


[Full Text Article]

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )