CELIAC: AT GLANCE (MINI REVIEW)
Tikka Prabhjot Singh, Ritesh Kumar Giri and Wang Hong Ling*
Celiac disease is a common chronic inflammatory autoimmune condition caused by intolerance to gluten such as wheat and rye which causes villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia with infiltration of lymphocytes in genetically predisposed population which is manifested by spectrum of symptoms which varies from mild to signs of malabsorption. Having 0.5 - 1% prevalence in US population and even higher in Africans. Majority of patients express either HLA DQ8 or HLA DQ2 and severity is assessed by Marsh- Oberhuber staging. With the advent of newly serological tests in market for analysis which made the diagnosis as well as screening of patients more accurate like IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG), which has important component in pathogenesis and diagnosis, IgA anti-endomysial antibodies (EMAs) and total IgA level. Duodenal biopsy are still considered for diagnosis, but in clinical practice in certain circumstances specially, in children diagnosis is made without biopsy. Gluten free diet plan is highly strict, very expensive, socially isolating and mandatory which shows clinical in addition to histological improvements and also reduces complications as well as malignancies. Several years needed for the mucosa to emerge into normal on biopsy. These days high level research is going on for the development of non-dietary approaches, few are under clinical trials with the hope that it will give some kind of advantage to control celiac disease.
Keywords: CD Celiac disease, IEL Intraepithelial lymphocytes, IgA tTG Immunoglobulin A Tissue transglutaminase, IgA EMA immunoglobulin A Endomysial antibody, AGA Antigliadin antibody, DGP Deaminated gliadin peptide.
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