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An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

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European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , Academia , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 7.065

 ICV - 79.57



Fakhsheena Anjum*, Nighat Razvi, M. Ali Masood and Mahwish Sajid


The purpose of this study was to identify various life style risk factors of breast cancer in Pakistani females. This was an observational case control study. The breast cancer cases (n= 811) were from KIRAN hospital, Karachi and the control group (n= 1154) was population based, also from Karachi city. A researcher administered questionnaire was used with face to face interviews with the study subjects, from April 2011 to September 2013. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Mean age of the control group was 45.85±9.97 years and that of the breast cancer cases was 47.02± 11.79 years. More than 90% females were housewives (p=0.002) among which more than 50% had interfamily marriage (p<0.001). Only 30% controls and about 60% cases consumed milk regularly (p<0.001) with majority consuming fresh milk (p<0.001). The family history of breast cancer was found in 15.65% cases only (p<0.001). From binary logistic analysis it was seen that odds were higher for developing breast carcinoma regarding interfamily marriage (p<0.001), housewives (p=0.003) and regular milk consumption (p<0.001). The odds were much higher for illiterate subjects (p<0.001) and in those having concomitant hypertension and diabetes mellitus (p<0.001). Bivariate adjusted models in logistic regression analysis also revealed higher odds regarding these factors for the attainment of breast carcinoma; multivariate logistic regression analysis further supported that specifically interfamily marriage and regular milk consumption had much higher odds for the development of breast cancer. The results have revealed various life style factors that are potential risk for the development of breast carcinoma in the Pakistani females and these risk factors may vary worldwide due to environmental and cultural disparities; hence very important in detecting specific population at risk of breast cancer.

Keywords: Breast cancer, risk factors, life style characteristics.

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database Academia