( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Brown Holy*, Oruambo F and Kenanagha B


Aim: This study examined the antidotal effect of copper and manganese as an alternative to atropine sulphate in dichlorvos toxicity. Background: Acute pesticide poisoning is a major public health concern today in developing countries. Studies have shown the importance of antioxidants in health and disease that they could help prevent a host of chronic and degenerative disorders that might occur due to adverse effects of chemicals and other toxic agents in the system. Hence the need to assess the antidotal effects of some metals. Methods: Lethal and sublethal doses of dichlorvos was determined in a pilot study to be 18.5mg/kg and 14.5mg/kg respectively. Twenty rats divided into five groups of four albino rats per group were used for the study. Group 1 was given 14.8mg/kg of dichlorvos alone. Group 2 was given 1 ml of atropine sulphate (1.5mg/kg) after injection of dichlorvos (14.8mg/kg). Group 3 was given 1 ml of copper (0.025mg/kg) after the injection of dichlorvos (14.8mg/kg). Group 4 was given 1ml of manganese (0.01mg/kg) after the injection of dichlorvos (14.8mg/kg). Group 5 was given 1ml of manganese (0.025mg/kg) and 1 ml of copper (0.01mg/kg) after the injection of dichlorvos (14.8mg/kg). The symptoms of acute dichlorvos poisoning observed in the rats were straub tail, muscle fasciculation, piloerection, lacrimation, defecation, excessive salivation, whole body tremor, micturition, restlessness, pupil constriction, respiratory distress, gasping, convulsion and death. Results: The haematological result in acute toxicity study showed a statistically significant decrease (p<0.05) in the mean values of the circulating red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), haemoglobin (HB), packed cell volume (PCV), and platelet that was dose dependent. Also obtained was a significant dose dependent increase (p<0.05) in the biochemical parameters; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine in the copper, manganese and copper and manganese combined treated rats when compared with the atropine treated and control rats (p<0.05). There was however a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the mean value of serum cholinesterase in all treated groups. These effects were observed to gradually and significantly increase (P<0.05) in the copper, manganese, copper and manganese treated groups and least in atropine treated and control groups. Conclusion: The use of trace elements copper, manganese, and copper and manganese when compared with atropine were not able to reduce the impact of dichlorvos-induced toxicity in the rats.

Keywords: Dichlorvos toxicity, respiratory distress, gasping, convulsion and death

[Full Text Article]



  • New Issue Published

    Its Our pleasure to inform you that, EJPMR 1 September 2023 Issue has been Published, Kindly check it on


    SEPTEMBER issue has been successfully launched on 1 SEPTEMBER 2023.

  • EJPMR New Impact Factor

    Its our Pleasure to Inform you that EJPMR Impact Factor has been increased from  5.804 to 6.222, due to high quality Publication at International Level

  • Index Copernicus Value

    EJPMR Received Index Copernicus Value 79.57, due to High Quality Publication in EJPMR at International Level

  • Journal web site support Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Saffari for easy download of article without any trouble.


  • Article Invited for Publication

    Article are invited for publication in EJPMR Coming Issue

Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database