CLINICO-HEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE OF CHILDREN WITH MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA.
*Dr. Sudhir Mehta MBBS, DCH, DNB (PEDIATRICS)
Background: Megaloblastic Anemia is an important reversible cause of neurodevelopmental deterioration. The main objective of study was to describe the varied clinical and hematologic manifestations of Megaloblastic Anemia in children admitted to a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A Retrospective cross - sectional study was conducted in children between 6 months and 15 years, who were admitted with diagnosis of megaloblastic anemia from year 2012 to 2015. Case records of eligible participants were analysed for primary outcome measures like presenting clinical features, mode of diagnosis, peripheral smear findings and secondary outcome measures like age, sex, coexisting morbidities. Results: Of a total of 150 cases, in 64 % subjects, diagnosis was confirmed by Vitamin B12 assay, 36% were diagnosed by bone marrow examination. Macrocytic anemia was observed in peripheral smear examination in 100% subjects. Hyperpigmentation was noticed in 57% of subjects. Blood transfusion secondary to severe anemia was needed in 38% of subjects. Pallor was observed in 100% subjects, neurologic manifestations in 28% subjects. Conclusion: The most common presenting complaint in megaloblastic anemia due to Vitamin B12 deficiency is anorexia, generalised weakness, irritability manifesting clinically as pallor, hyperpigmentation and haematologically as macrocytic anemia. Regular report of common presentations of megaloblastic anemia in various age groups keeps the child care expert vigilant for its early detection.
Keywords: Macrocytic anemia, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Pallor.
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