EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF
PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH

( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57

Abstract

BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF HIPPURIC ACID AS A MARKER OF SOLVENT EXPOSURE AMONG SUBSTANCE USERS

Dr. Priyamvada Sharma*, Shraddha Hegde, Prof. Pratima Murthy and Prof. Vivek Benegal

ABSTRACT

Background: Inhalant sniffing offers fast and intense sensory experience to abusers which also contribute to its excessive use. Users can be an active user or have frequent exposure to solvents. Objective: A biochemical procedure for detection and quantification of hippuric acid as marker of solvent exposure (toluene, paint, thinner, eraser, inhalers) in urine is described and its effectiveness in clinical samples was also demonstrated. Methods: Simple chemical reaction for hippuric acid detection and quantification was improvised for clinical application, visual detection as well as quantification by wavelength reader was viable. Solvent exposures (intentional /occupational) among alcohol and drugs users were tested. Results: Hippuric acid levels were screened for 194 subjects, among them 46 had history of alcohol use, 33 were opiate users, 74 were cannabis user, 7 had history of poly substance use and 17 were benzodiazepine users. Fourteen subject with solvent use history and ten healthy volunteers also participated. Association between solvent contact and hippuric acid excretion was observed. Validation parameters for recovery ≥100%, accuracy 2.50, coefficient variance (r2), 0.998 were in acceptable range. Conclusion: Hippuric acid, a valid biomarker for solvent exposure has treatment implications also. Current study demonstrates its screening and quantification potential without being affected by diverse abuse patterns of user. This screening procedure for solvent exposure is cost and time effective and hold good sensitivity for further detection of other metabolites of solvent exposure in positive samples can be clubbed with other chromatographic techniques.

Keywords: Hippuric acid, Colorimeter, Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Essay (ELISA), plate reader.


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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )