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An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Orji J.O., Nwobashi P.A., Nnachi A.U.*, Aghanya I.N., Asobie G.C., Nnemelu P.O., Okeh C.O., Uzor C.V. and Braide W.


The unsanitary conditions often associated with the preparation and marketing of locally-made snuff in southeastern Nigeria suggest a potential for contamination with a microbial population that can endanger the health of snuff consumers. This study examined the bacteriological quality of locally-made snuff sold in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Sixty-four (64) samples of locally-made tobacco products (32 fermented dried tobacco leaves and 32 snuff samples) were purchased from different tobacco shops in two senatorial zones of the state and processed using standard microbiological techniques. The results revealed the mean total aerobic bacterial counts of locally-made snuff from Ebonyi Central and Ebonyi South as 3.14x106 and 2.08x106 cfu/g respectively, while fermented dried tobacco leaves recorded mean total aerobic bacterial counts of 1.17x106 and 1.83x106 cfu/g for Ebonyi Central and Ebonyi South respectively. Seven (7) bacterial genera totaling 247 isolates were recovered including: Escherichia coli (49/247, 33.1%), Salmonella spp. (41/247, 16.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (40/247, 16.2%), Shigella spp. (38/247, 15.4%), Streptococcus pyogenes (29/247, 11.74%), Klebsiella spp. (29/247, 11.74%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21/247, 8.5%). The result of multiple antibiotic resistant index (MARI) revealed that Shigella spp. had the highest MARI of 0.8 and Staphylococcus aureus recorded the least (0.02). The study showed that the locally-made snuff sold in the zones were highly burdened with potential bacterial pathogens with high multi-antibiotic resistance indexes..

Keywords: Tobacco, Snuff, Bacteria, Contamination, MARI, Ebonyi.

[Full Text Article]



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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database