PROXIMATE COMPOSITION, PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF DATURA STRAMONIUM L. LEAVES EXTRACT
Sami K. D. Idris and Shama I. Y. Adam*
Datura stramonium is used in the traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments. The aim of this work was to evaluate the proximate composition of D. stramonium leaves, to extract the leaves powder using solvents, petroleum ether, methanol and water and to identify the active constituent(s), and also to evaluate the Antimicrobial activity of these extracts. The Yield% of the leaves extracts using petroleum ether was 7.04%, methanol 7.78% and water was 19.05%. The proximate composition of plant leaves was assessed using the method described by the association of official analytical chemists and revealed 3.55% as moisture content, 15% ash and 84.45% for organic matter. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of 10 and 50% concentrations of petroleum ether, methanol and water extracts of D. stramonium against bacterial organism; Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and the fungus Candida albicans was carried out using the agar- well diffusion method. It was showon that the extracts have variable bactericidal activity. E.coli and Candida albican were the most sensitive organisms to different concentrations of extracts. The result also showed that the plant extracts contain: alkaloids, flavonoid, reducing compound, glycosides, saponins, and triterpens, but all were devoid of tannins. Thin Layer Chromatograpic technique (TLC) was used to separate active compounds of the leaves. The Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) analysis detected the presence of Scopolamine, Pyrazine, 1-Propanamine, Butanomic acid, Imidazole, Ascorbic acid and other types of constituents.
Keywords: Datura stramonium, antimicrobial activity, proximate composition, TLC, GC-MS techniques.
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