( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



*Hamdi Abdulwahab Alhakimi, Anas Yahya Alghamdi and Ahmad Hamza Alabbasi, Omar Abdulaziz Alzahrani and Abdullah Sinhat Alsahli


Background: Workers who regularly use pesticides at increasing risk of pesticides toxicity. Monitoring of pesticides chronic toxicity is necessary to prevent long term health hazards. This review aimed to compare the validity of cholinesterase biomarkers to that of cytogenetic biomarkers in assessment of pesticides chronic toxicity. Methods: Medline and Cochrane library are searched electronically to collect studies which conducted cholinesterase and cytogenetic biomarkers simultaneously among pesticides exposed workers. A total of 1249 papers have found. After excluding of irrelevant, ineligible, duplicate and very low quality papers, only 16 studies are included in this systematic review. As a gold standard test was absent, we had to validate these biomarkers in order to compare them together. Validation had two phases, phase1 the ability of biomarkers to detect a significant difference between pesticides exposed and non-exposed workers. Phase 2 is purposed to determine a dose-response relationship and to control for confounding. Results: at the study level, the cytogenetic biomarkers have a higher reliability (100%) than cholinesterase biomarkers (75%) for detection of statistically significant difference between chronically exposed and non exposed workers. Furthermore, within studies using cholinesterase biomarkers, erythrocyte cholinesterase (E chE) has higher reliability (78%) than plasma cholinesterase (P AchE) (62%). There is a significant association between duration of exposure and results of cytogenetic biomarkers. This association found to be less evident between duration of exposure and (E chE), and it is absent between duration of exposure and (P AchE). Conclusion: The cytogenetic biomarkers have more reliability than cholinesterase biomarkers in assessment of chronic toxicity caused by pesticides exposure.

Keywords: cholinesterase, cytogenetic, Medline and Cochrane.

[Full Text Article]



  • New Issue Published

    Its Our pleasure to inform you that, EJPMR 1 December 2021 Issue has been Published, Kindly check it on


    DECEMBER Issue has been successfully launched on 1 December 2021.

  • EJPMR New Impact Factor

    Its our Pleasure to Inform you that EJPMR Impact Factor has been increased from  5.804 to 6.222, due to high quality Publication at International Level

  • Index Copernicus Value

    EJPMR Received Index Copernicus Value 79.57, due to High Quality Publication in EJPMR at International Level

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI )