( An ISO 9001:2015 Certified International Journal )

An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , Academia , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 7.065

 ICV - 79.57



E. T. Arun Thomas*, Bhagya S., Udayabhaskaran V., K. G. Sajeeth Kumar and N. K. Thulaseedharan


Background: Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) bites are common in the Indian subcontinent, especially in Kerala. In the past, Hump-nosed pit viper was considered as a mildly venomous snake; hence it was not included in the polyvalent anti snake venom manufactured in India. However, there is increasing number of reports of serious complications following envenomation by this species. Aim of the study: To study the complications following Hump-nosed pit viper envenomation and to compare it with Russell’s viper envenomation. Methods: 29 cases of Hump-nosed pit viper envenomation and 15 cases of Russell’s viper envenomation admitted in the Snake Bite Unit of Government Medical College Kozhikode from 1st January 2014 to 31st December 2014 were studied. Only cases in which the species of the biting snake was definitely identified were included. Results: Acute kidney injury was observed in 11 patients (6 cases required hemodialysis) with Hump-nosed pit viper envenomation and 14 patients (8 cases required hemodialysis) with Russell’s viper envenomation. The difference between the number of dialysis-requiring cases in these two groups were statistically insignificant (P=0.058). One patient with Hump-nose pit viper bite and 2 patients with Russell’s viper bite progressed to chronic kidney disease on follow up for 3 months. The renal biopsy of these patients showed cortical necrosis. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of coagulopathy and compartment syndrome between two groups. There was one death due to Hump-nosed pit viper bite and it was due to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura-like syndrome. Conclusion: Severe acute kidney injury, compartment syndrome and potential to cause renal cortical necrosis and even death following Hump-nosed pit viper envenomation are strong reasons to change the concept of the “Big 4” to “Big 5”. Anti snake venom with activity against Hump-nosed pit viper venom need to be manufactured and be made available in India.

Keywords: .

[Full Text Article] [Download Certificate]


  All Since 2019
 Citation  3086  2560
 h-index  18  17
 i10-index  64  44



  • New Issue Published

    Its Our pleasure to inform you that, EJPMR 1 June 2024 Issue has been Published, Kindly check it on


    JUNE 2024 issue has been successfully launched on JUNE 2024.

  • EJPMR New Impact Factor

    EJPMR Impact Factor has been Increased to 7.065 for Year 2024.

  • Index Copernicus Value

    EJPMR Received Index Copernicus Value 79.57, due to High Quality Publication in EJPMR at International Level

  • Journal web site support Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Saffari for easy download of article without any trouble.


  • Article Invited for Publication

    Article are invited for publication in EJPMR Coming Issue

Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database Academia