An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

An Official Publication of Society for Advance Healthcare Research (Reg. No. : 01/01/01/31674/16)

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 6.222

 ICV - 79.57



Rozita Ghavaminia, Davood Sohrabi, Mitra Arianmanesh, Mohsen Alipour and Iraj Jafari Anarkooli*


The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of insulin and honey on passive avoidance memory, expression of the Bcl-2 family of genes involved in apoptosis and the antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the hippocampus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. The present study was conducted on 48 male Wistar rats in eight groups (six rats per group) as follows: healthy and diabetic rats treated with honey alone, insulin alone, both insulin and honey, or untreated. Diabetes was induced by injection of STZ (IP, 60 mg/kg). Three days after diabetes induction, the honey groups were treated by intraperitoneal injection with a 5 mg/kg dose of honey daily. The insulin groups received a daily subcutaneous injection of 2–3 U/kg doses of insulin, and the insulin + honey groups received a combination of the above two treatments at the same dosages. Control groups received normal saline. After four weeks of treatment, passive avoidance learning was assessed using a shuttle box apparatus and 24 hours later, the animals’ memory was tested. The rats were then euthanized and their hippocampi were removed and Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA levels were assessed via semi-quantitative RT-PCR. SOD activity was assessed with a Randox SOD kit. The results showed that treatment of diabetic rats with insulin or honey separately and in combination led to increased learning and improved passive avoidance memory, reduced expression of Bax, increased expression of Bcl-2, increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio and increased SOD activity in the hippocampus region. It appears that treatment of these rats with insulin and honey separately or in combination can prevent apoptosis in the hippocampal region by reducing the expression of pro-apoptotic Bax and increasing the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, as well as by increasing SOD activity. Through inhibition of apoptosis, this treatment can potentially reduce learning and memory deficiencies caused by hippocampal damage in these rats.

Keywords: Diabetes, insulin, honey, hippocampus, apoptosis, Passive-avoidance learning, Bax, Bcl-2, superoxide dismutase

[Full Text Article]



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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing