HUMAN PATELLA MORPHOMETRY AND VOLUMETRY, AN OSTEOLOGY-BASED STUDY IN THE JAPANESE ETHNICITY
Ahmed Al-Imam* and Mohammed-Lutfi Al-Imam
BACKGROUND Patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the body. It is of critical importance to the patellofemoral unit. Its morphology can be modified by several cultural-ethnic factors. Further, its morphometry is of prime value in anthropology, biometrics, evolutionary Biology, implant prosthesis and surgical orthopedic procedures. AIM To derive a statistical inference concerning the morphometry of the patella, in a specific ethnic sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS In a sample of 40 dry patellae of deceased member of the Japanese ethnicity, measurements were taken to derive statistical inferences concerning patellar morphometry. Specific morphometric parameters were studied: patellar heights (H1 and H2), maximal width (W), maximal thickness (T), volume, weight, and density. Patellar heights,width, and thickness. The volume was measured accurately using two methods: Archimedes fluid displacement principle (1st method), and the application of using an alginate impression cast material (2nd method). Patellar density was a derived function of both volume and weight. Citations of this paper were created via systematic review of literature with subsequent critical analysis. RESULTS The 95% confidence Interval were: 35.50 to 38.40 (H1), 26.46 to 28.40 (H2), 36.93 to 39.49 (W), 18.12 to 19.28 (T), 6.462 to 7.894 (volume), 8.991 to 10.677 (weight), and 0.696 to 0.765 (density). Pearson’s Correlation coefficient (R), was positive for most of the tested parameters.The strongest correlation of Patellar weight versus volume, at R of 0.872, and patellar weight versus thickness at R of 0.779. All related p-values were significant at p < 0.01. Multiple Linear Regression of the tabulated parameters, revealed that the Residual Sum of Squares (RSS) was 0.913, and the Coefficient of Determination (R2) was 0.981. CONCLUSION Data from this study is highly valuable and of vital applications in: anthropology, comparative Anatomy and evolutionary Biology, prosthesis synthesis, biomedical applications, orthopedic surgery, and degenerative Medicine.
Keywords: Patella, Sesamoid Bones, Morphometry, Casting Technique, Humans, Japan.
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