ENTEROCLYSIS AND COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC ENTEROGRAPHY IN MEDICAL IMAGING
Hinal S. Mehta, Neha A. Bhatt and Prof. Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen*
Enteroclysis is an X-ray examination of the small intestine that looks at how a liquid called contrast material moves through the small intestine. This test is done in a hospital radiology department. The health care provider will insert a tube through nose or mouth into the stomach and into the beginning of the small bowel. Contrast material and air will flow through the tube and X-rays are taken. The X-ray images appear in real time on a monitor that is similar to a television screen. This means they are seen as the contrast is actually moving through the bowel. Sometimes a CT scan is also used. The goal of the study is to view all of the loops of small bowel. It is to be asked to change positions during the examination. The test usually lasts several hours, because it may take a while for the contrast to move through the whole small bowel. It is prescribed to drink clear liquids for at least 24 hours before the test. Laxatives may be prescribed to make sure the bowel is clear of any particles that might interfere with the study. It is suggested to stop taking medications, including narcotic pain relievers, on or before the day of the examination. It is recommended not to change or stop taking any medications without first talking to health care provider. If the patient is anxious about the procedure, it is suggested to be given a sedative before it starts. It is to be asked to remove all jewelry and to wear a hospital gown. It is best to leave jewelry and other valuables at home. It will be asked to remove any removable dental work, such as appliances, bridges or retainers. The placement of the tube may be uncomfortable. The contrast material may cause a feeling of abdominal disturbances. This test is performed to examine the small bowel. It is the most complete way of telling if the small intestine is normal. There are no problems seen with the size or shape of the small intestine. Contrast travels through the bowel at a normal rate without any sign of blockage. Many problems of the small intestine can be found with enteroclysis. Some of these include: Inflammation of the small bowel (Crohn disease), Mal absorption, Narrowing or stricture of the intestine, Small bowel blockage, Tumors of the small intestine. The radiation exposure may be greater with this test than with other types of X-rays because of the length of time, but most experts feel that the risk is low compared to the benefits. Pregnant women and children are more sensitive to the risks of X-ray radiation. If there is a chance that if one is pregnant, it must be informed to health care provider. Rare complications include: Allergic reactions to medications prescribed for the examination (drug sensitivity), possible injury to bowel structures during the study, Barium may cause constipation. It must be informed to health care provider if the barium has not passed through the GIT system by 2 or 3 days after the test, or if feeling of constipation.
Keywords: Contrast media, MRI, X-ray, GIT, Ultrasound, Barium meal, Thorotrast, Enteroclysis, CT enterography, Barolith.
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