HYPERTENSION: PREVALENCE, HEALTH RISKS, AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
Ahmed Ahmed, Eiman Shams Elddin Elgailani, *Heyam Saad Ali
Hypertension is the most common cause of cardiovascular disease which is abnormally due to sustained elevated blood pressure (Systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or greater and/or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or greater) in any blood vessel (usually arterial), such as pulmonary or portal. It has been called “the silent killer” because it usually does not cause symptoms for many years until a vital organ is damaged. The risk of mortality or morbidity rises progressively with increasing systolic and diastolic pressures, with each measure having independent prognosis value; for example, isolated systolic hypertension is associated with a 2-3 fold increase in cardiac mortality. The level at which blood pressure is associated with a significant increase in risk also depend on age, sex, race and other environmental factors. Abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries also increases the risk of problems such as stroke, aneurysm, heart failure, heart attack, and kidney damage. Blood pressure levels are strongly familial but no clear genetic pattern has been discerned. The strong familial risk for cardiovascular diseases should also be considered. This review familiarizes the silent killer, hypertension with a focus on recent research on etiology, prevalence, pathophysiology and treatment of hypertension.
Keywords: Stroke, aneurysm, heart failure, heart attack, and kidney damage.
[Full Text Article]