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An International Peer Reviewed Journal for Pharmaceutical, Medical & Biological Sciences

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European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research (EJPMR) has indexed with various reputed international bodies like : Google Scholar , Indian Science Publications , InfoBase Index (In Process) , SOCOLAR, China , Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN , International Society for Research activity (ISRA) , Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) , Polish Scholarly Bibliography , Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) , Universal Impact Factor , International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE  , Index Copernicus , CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) , Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) , UDLedge Science Citation Index , CiteFactor , Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) , Indian citation Index (ICI) , Journal Index (JI, Under Process) , Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) , Open Access Journals (Under Process) , Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) , Cosmos Impact Factor , Jour Informatics (Under Process) , Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) , International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) , Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates , Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) , IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) , Web of Science Group (Under Process) , Directory of Research Journals Indexing , Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) , International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) , Scope Database , Academia , 

 ISSN 2394-3211

Impact Factor: 7.065

 ICV - 79.57



Noor Ul Ain, Samyyia Abrar, Kiran Nazeer and Saba Riaz*


The objectives of the presented study were to update knowledge of the resistance burden in isolates from clinical settings in Pakistan, and assess the prevalence of ESBLs and MBLs in them. A total of 642 samples were processed in regional diagnostic center during October 2014 to December 2014. All the samples were subjected to Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Extended spectrum beta lactamases were screened by double disc synergism test (DDST) and Combination disc test (CDST). Strains resistant to carbapenems were further screened for metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) using EDTA- imipenem disc synergism test and modified Hodge test. 498 Gram negative strains were obtained, most frequently from urine samples (61%), followed by pus (19%) and wound (6%) samples. There were 30% more infected samples from female patients than from male patients. The pathogens most frequently detected were Escherichia coli (50%) followed by Klebsiella spp. (18%), Pseudomonas spp. (11%) and Citrobacter spp. (11%). All of the E. coli and Klebsiella strains showed resistance to ampicillin and cefuroxime, and 97-98% of them showed resistance to cephradine, ceftrioxone, azeotrenum and amoxicillin. However, 85-92 and 82% of them were susceptible to carbapenems and amikacin, respectively. The DDSTs indicated that 58% of the strains carried ESBLs, and they were most prevalent in isolates from neonates (<1-year-old) followed by 21-40 year-olds. The commonest ESBL-carrying strains were Escherichia coli (54%) followed by Klebsiella spp. (23%) and Citrobacter spp. (11%). CDSTs detected ESBLs in more strains (73%) than the DDSTs. In addition, 57 and 85% of the carbapenem-resistant strains possessed MBL activity according to EDTA-imipenem CDST and EDTA-imipenem disc synergism tests. Use of ESBL- and MBL-phenotypic detection tests and antimicrobial susceptibility tests in routine screening may be a good strategy for managing infections in a country like Pakistan.

Keywords: ESBLs, MBLs, AST and antibiotics resistance.

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Google Scholar Indian Science Publications InfoBase Index (In Process) SOCOLAR, China Research Bible, Fuchu, Tokyo. JAPAN International Society for Research activity (ISRA) Scientific Indexing Services (SIS) Polish Scholarly Bibliography Global Impact Factor (GIF) (Under Process) Universal Impact Factor International Scientific Indexing (ISI), UAE Index Copernicus CAS (A Division of American Chemical Society) USA (Under Process) Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ, Sweden, in process) UDLedge Science Citation Index CiteFactor Directory Of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI) Indian citation Index (ICI) Journal Index (JI, Under Process) Directory of abstract indexing for Journals (DAIJ) Open Access Journals (Under Process) Impact Factor Services For International Journals (IFSIJ) Cosmos Impact Factor Jour Informatics (Under Process) Eurasian Scientific Journal Index (ESJI) International Innovative Journal Impact Factor (IIJIF) Science Library Index, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Pubmed Database [NLM ID: 101669306] (Under Process) IP Indexing (IP Value 2.40) Web of Science Group (Under Process) Directory of Research Journals Indexing Scholar Article Journal Index (SAJI) International Scientific Indexing ( ISI ) Scope Database Academia