TRANS-FATS AUGMENTS CORONARY HEART DISEASE---FIND THE RELATION
Dr. Anil Batta*
A large body of data from epidemiologic, clinical trial, animal, and in vitro studies demonstrate adverse consequences of industrially synthesized Trans fatty acids (TFAs) on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). A growing database of more recent research from virtually all experimental models demonstrates evidence of detrimental consequences of TFAs on the risk of MI & Diabetes. Evidence is accumulating about the physiological and cellular mechanisms of action that account for the many adverse effects TFAs have on CHD and diabetes. In a relatively short period of time (i.e., from around the early 1990s to the present time, or almost 20 years), we have gained a good understanding of the health effects of TFAs. Trans-fatty acid intake is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), but the atherogenic potential of individual trans-fatty acids (FA) from partially hydrogenated oils (18:1 and 18:2) of dairy products (16:1 and 18:1) is unclear. Incident cases (n = 48) of a first nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) were matched with population controls (n = 48) for age, gender and area of residence. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated from conditional logistic regression models. Total adipose tissue trans-fat was positively associated with risk of MI. After adjusting for established risk factors and other confounders, the OR by quintiles of total trans-fat were 1.00, 1.34, 2.05, 2.22 and 2.94 (P-test for trend < 0.01). This association was attributed mainly to 18:2 trans-FA that were abundant in both adipose tissue and in partially hydrogenated soybean oil, margarines and baked products used by this population; OR = 1.00, 0.96, 2.09, 3.51 and 5.05 (P-test for trend < 0.001). Adipose tissue 16:1 trans-FA were also associated with MI; OR = 1.00, 1.57, 1.39, 1.34 and 2.58 (P-test for trend < 0.05). An association with 18:1 trans-FA was not detected. High 18:2 trans-FA in adipose tissue are associated with increased risk of MI. Because the use of hydrogenated oils is increasing worldwide, the research on TFAs is a good example of how an evidence base has been built and translated into public policy that targets improved health. It is impressive that the TFA research has been coupled to public policy actions to decrease TFAs in the food supply so quickly.
Keywords: Trans fatty acids, MI, CHD, Diabetes.
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